Let’s start like responsible philosophers with clear definitions…
Empiricism is the theory that the origin of all knowledge is sense experience. It emphasizes the role of experience and evidence in the formation of ideas, and argues that the only knowledge humans can have is “a posteriori” (Latin for “from what comes after”)
Thi is opposed to Rationalism which is…
Rationalism is a method of inquiry that regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge and, in contrast to empiricism, tends to not approve of sensory experience. A priori (Latin for “from what was before”)
A priori (prior to experience) knowledge is what we know using our minds and not our senses. We live in a world of Empiricism right now. Science gives us empirical evidence and we are told we need this to believe anything. We are a culture of extreme skepticism in everything, except of science and empirical evidence.
This is a problem for two reasons.
- Not everything is subject to the scientific method. God, ghosts, anything spiritual. Even psychology, we can do experiments and test but we can’t be as certain in psychology as we can be of something like gravity.
- The other problem is that we don’t know how much we can trust our senses. This is what I want to spend some time on.
You’ve probably seen the movie The Matrix which leaves us with the question, how do I know that everything I’m experiencing (Empirical data) isn’t just a dream or a computer program? Now, no one believes this is real, but we can’t know for sure! Descartes took this to the extreme and decided the only thing he can know is that he is a thinking thing. There is something (his soul? his mind?) that definitely exists because he knows that he is thinking about these things. From there I think we can build a few basic truths and know them for sure (as Descartes tried to do).
One truth we can never know for sure is Empiricism. I’m not saying I believe we are in Inception or something, however science itself helps to prove how unreliable science actually is. Einstein came up with his theories of relativity in the early 1900s which basically say that time is different depending on your perspective. Not that it is perceived differently, but time is actually different.
“Scientists have tested this theory through experimentation – proving, for example, that an atomic clock ticks more slowly when traveling at a high speed than it does when it is not moving. The essence of Einstein’s paper was that both space and time are relative (rather than absolute)…”
So depending on your speed time literally moves slower or faster (you don’t perceive it slower or faster, it actually slows down or speeds up!!). I know it sounds insane, but that is because we place so much importance on experience. This was confirmed conclusively just recently because not only is time relative, but also physical matter itself is relative. Gravitational waves from a supernova came through and scientists detected that it stretched all physical matter on earth (including the earth itself) by a microscopic amount. We didn’t notice a thing though.
My concern is that if something as basic as time and my height can be completely subjective, then how can I trust anything I see or hear or smell or taste or feel? Logic is something I can trust much more. The law of non-contradiction is more concrete than Newtons laws. Furthermore if we can throw out so much of what we knew about physics so quickly, maybe we will be throwing out Einsteins theories sooner than we think?
My point is just that we cannot choose to trust only Empiricism, as we have. I would argue that Rationalism is more trustworthy than Empiricism. You may not believe that, but either way, we all have to wrestle with the fact (and it is a fact) that we cannot be as certain about anything as we thought we could. We know staggeringly little about the world we perceive. We should be more open to uncertainty and not act so sure of so much.
This clip from Last Week Tonight expands on the science problem. There is a quote in this piece (below), “I think the way to live your life is you find the study that sounds best to you” where Jon Oliver makes the joke that choosing only what you want to believe, “is religion, that’s religion you’re thinking of.” That’s Exactly the problem, our society doesn’t understand what science does or what philosophy/religion is.
At the election on October 19th I plan to walk in and hand in my ballot completely blank. Why would I do this? To make as many enemies as possible? Here is the problem, no one cares if I vote or not, people only care if I vote for who they want! Technically I did vote, so no one can be upset. So why would I waste my time spoiling my ballot when it’s pretty much the same as not voting? I don’t know, mostly so people don’t yell at me for not voting and to show that it’s not about laziness. The reason I didn’t vote is because I don’t believe in our democratic political system.
Who wants you to vote?
All of the campaigns to encourage people to vote are supported by Liberals (or NDP) and aimed at young people. Why, because younger people are more likely to vote More liberal. Conservatives don’t encourage people to vote for the same reason. So when it looks like people care about something, it’s really just a calculated political move, which is all politics ever is. Everything they do is to win, do they even have any ideological values? That explains why no ones platform is consistent. Trudeau is “Pro-Choice” but doesn’t allow his party members to CHOOSE where they stand on abortion…that’s called pro-ABORTION not pro-choice!
What is an Ad Hominem Fallacy
I don’t know what hardly any of the issues are because all I everhear are arguments about how terrible the person is and how they aren’t good enough to lead the country. What is an ad hominem argument? It’s attacking the person instead of the persons arguments. If I argue that the death penalty is wrong because we don’t have the right to kill anyone and you respond with “You’re just a wimp!”that is not addressing the actual argument, just the person. So all this Harper is racist and Trudeau isn’t ready really just comes down to slandering the opposition to make yourself look better. If we are going to steal something from American politics, let’s steal voting on specific issues and leave the mudslinging to the experts. Ooooooo Burn, America!
But Mike, aren’t you Pro-Life?!?!? Think of the Children!!!!
I am pro-life and I think it would be nice to have a pro-life party to vote for. Harper has been Prime Minister since 2006 and there is absolutely no regulations on abortion. You can literally kill a baby legally while the mother is in labour. If Conservatives care about this issue, then when will anything happen? Oh remember what I said about no party being consistent…. Ooooo burn, conservatives! So yes I’m pro-life, who do I vote for to get abortion laws changed? Let me know when you find out….
Democracy does not work
I’ve been a Communist and an Anarchist and now I just realize there is no good system. Plato said in the Republic that democracy is the least just system of government. He said dictatorship is more just! Maybe we should try a dictatorship? (Don’t forget that Hitler was elected democratically!) The only way you can have a just political system is if the people/person in charge cared more about other people than themselves… So we have no hope. I think the people in charge need to be philosophers first and foremost. They need to objectively look at things, they need to change their minds once in a while and they need to admit they are wrong sometimes!
The conclusion to this hopeless, depressing rant… I hear Switzerland is nice this time of year! I hate politics precisely because I have no good solution and I’m not sure there is an actual solution. Individuals need to look into what is right and what is wrong. Just because it is legal does not make it right. Have an informed conscious, have a truly open mind and don’t be afraid to change sides! And for the love of everything good and holy, take a philosophy class! Philosophy was the only subject I took in University that, I felt, wasn’t completely bias. There is a lot more I could say but my main point is that you need to think critically, always look at what someone’s motivations could be before you buy what they’re selling. I think philosophy is the only way to make reasonable decisions.